Characteristics and applications of five common sensors

By Fairchild Semiconductor


The sensor generally consists of four parts: a sensitive component, a conversion component, a conversion circuit, and an auxiliary power supply. With the development of information technology, the application of sensors is more extensive, and various sensors have become the focus of enterprise research.

The following are the characteristics and applications of the five common sensors listed by the author:

1, temperature sensor

It is a sensor that can sense the temperature and convert it into an available output signal. The temperature sensor is the core part of the temperature measuring instrument. It can be divided into contact type and non-contact type according to the measurement method. It is divided into heat according to the characteristics of the sensor material and electronic components. Two types of resistors and thermocouples. Temperature sensors are widely used in color TVs, switching power supplies, water heaters, refrigerators, air conditioners, and automobiles.

2, photosensitive sensor

There are many types of photosensitive sensors, including infrared sensors, ultraviolet sensors, CCD and CMOS image sensors. It plays an important role in automatic control and non-electrical electrical measurement technology. It is a sensor that converts optical signals into electrical signals using photosensitive elements. . Photosensitive sensors are mainly used in the field of light automatic control of solar lawn lamps, cameras, monitors, sound and light control switches, cameras and other electronic products.

3, electromagnetic sensor

It is a kind of sensor that converts the measured physical quantity into an induced electromotive force. It is mainly a power generation type sensor designed for the speed measuring gear, which will measure the magnetic flux change induced in the conductor and convert it into an output signal change. In addition to its high sensitivity and large output signal, this sensor has a strong range of speed detection and it plays a large role in industrial applications.

4, biosensor

It is an instrument that is sensitive to biological substances and converts its concentration into electrical signals for detection. It is an analytical tool or system composed of immobilized bio-sensitive materials as identification elements and signal amplifying devices. It has the following common structure. A physical or chemical transducer comprising one or more related biologically active materials and capable of converting a biologically active expressed signal into an electrical signal. Biosensors are widely used in many fields due to their high selectivity, high sensitivity, low cost, high automation, miniaturization and integration.

5, wireless sensor

With the development of the Internet of Things, wireless connections such as WIFI are very popular, which is a very important opportunity for the development of wireless sensors, and the prospects are limitless. The component module of the wireless sensor is packaged in a casing. When it is working, it will be powered by a battery or a vibration generator to form a wireless sensor network node. The random nodes are integrated with sensors, data processing units and communication modules. The way the organization forms the network, wireless sensors can be used in many places where wireless connectivity and data tracking are required.

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