After the 5nm process node, the development direction of semiconductor devices

By EPCOS (TDK)


Moore's Law has always played an important role in the long process of integrated circuit development. However, in recent years, as the process node continues to advance, the transistor size has approached the physical limit, and semiconductor devices are also facing the challenge of short channel effect, increased drain leakage current, and increased power consumption. In this situation, Moore's Law, the "female old man", has gradually disappeared. As a result, semiconductor practitioners began to think about the development opportunities under the super-molar law—new materials and new principle devices were put on the line.

According to the ITRS (International Semiconductor Technology Blueprint), the FinFET and FDSOI processes propped up the world before the 10nm node. When the process node enters 10 nm, the traditional silicon channel begins to be replaced by channels of other materials, and new materials of Group III and V are beginning to emerge. Especially when entering the 5nm process node, ITRS believes that two-dimensional atomic crystal material devices will bring new opportunities for the post-Moore era.

Two-dimensional atomic crystal materials are abbreviated as two-dimensional materials, and are limited to two-dimensional planes due to carrier migration and heat diffusion, which makes the related devices have higher switching ratio, ultra-thin channel, and ultra-low power consumption. extensive attention. At the same time, the two-dimensional materials have encountered bottlenecks due to the controllable growth of large-area high-quality thin films and heterostructures, low efficiency of light-emitting devices, high-performance two-dimensional device fabrication and system integration processes. Research has been carried out in these areas. With the deepening of research, two-dimensional materials are widely used in fields such as field effect transistors, optoelectronic devices, and thermoelectric devices due to their adjustable band gap characteristics. So far, the new two-dimensional materials and Dirac film materials have provided an opportunity for new physical devices.

Since the successful removal of graphene by the Geim research team at the University of Manchester in 2004, the two-dimensional atomic crystal material has ushered in a highlight moment. After nearly a decade of rapid development, research on electronic and optoelectronic devices based on two-dimensional materials has achieved a series of remarkable results.

Among them, in terms of the development of photodetectors, there are two main challenges in the development of the device: First, reducing the thickness of the conventionally used "amorphous" film material will reduce the quality of the material; As ultra-thin materials become thinner, they become almost transparent, virtually losing some of the ability to gather and absorb light.

The emergence of two-dimensional materials has greatly promoted the development of photodetectors. Traditional three-dimensional thin film semiconductors (such as Si, GaN, InGaAs, InSb, HgCdTe, etc.) have always dominated the photodetection market. The next generation of photodetectors is developing toward broadband, ultra-sensitive, ultra-small pixels, super-large arrays and multi-dimensional optical information detection. Compared with the traditional three-dimensional thin film semiconductor, the two-dimensional material has a size smaller than the wavelength of light in one dimension, and can obtain low dark current and noise, and has the advantages of low power consumption and wide wavelength band.

At the same time, in order to achieve the optimum speed of the detector, it is necessary to find a balance in the thickness of the absorption layer of the detector and the area of ​​the photodetector. However, graphene photodetectors have limitations such as low response rate, slower photo response time, and low external quantum efficiency (0.1-0.2%). Therefore, in order to find other photodetector two-dimensional materials to improve the response rate and spectral selectivity, scientists' enthusiasm for graphene has gradually expanded to other two-dimensional materials, and therefore, more and more two-dimensional materials. Was discovered and studied. These two-dimensional materials include transition metal sulfides, transition metal oxides, and boron nitride.

Fudan University is focusing on the development of new-principles transistors and optoelectronic devices by using molecular beam epitaxy to grow wafer-level thin film materials around the new principle of new thin film materials. A new scheme for thin film crystal growth was proposed, which solved the problem of controllable growth and doping, and realized photodetectors.

At Tektronix's third semiconductor material device characterization and reliability research exchange meeting, industry experts shared the research results in this area. For more 2D material development prospects, please click on the original text below to get all PPT. The top 30 users will also receive a complete printed version of the Tektronix officially compiled "Representation of Representation and Reliability Research of Semiconductor Devices" (2018 version)!

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