Phase-lock loops are useful topologies that can be used for frequency synthesis, channel tuning and setting, processor clocking, and data recovery.
For energy-harvesting applications, the ability to boost the supply voltage or provide a negative supply rail offers significant flexibility in circuit design.
Electrical and thermal conditions are two major factors affecting device life and lighting output and, while long life is a key benefit of LEDs, all bets are off if the LEDs exceed their temperature ratings.
Today's system board is proliferated with a variety of power supply regulators. In practice, there are three different types of voltage regulators-linear, switching, and charge pumps.
While USB came from the PC world, it is not just a PC phenomenon. Cell phones, cameras, recorders, players, display devices, tuners, and more all use USB connectivity, either as a peripheral, or even as a host. Even picture frames have USB ports.
Switching DC/DC converters are popular for voltage regulation in portable designs because they are flexible and efficient.
Getting the best performance from an LED requires the right driver. Linear regulators present a simple and economical solution for low-power LEDs.